This site is a free public resource for lawyers, legal linguists, and anyone else interested in the language lawyers use. It concentrates on written rather than spoken language for no better reason than that is my main interest. It continues my 35-year campaign against legalese but is not restricted to the plain language v. legalese debate and will, I hope, promote effective legal writing.

Apart from information about (and links to) my own books and articles, and the reference to CLEA, there is no advertising. An invisible web counter tells me which pages have been opened, and from which country and region, but not by whom. There are no other cookies.

The dates on the left indicate the most recent addition or improvement to each page. Green dates highlight recent changes.

I welcome ideas, examples (particularly of ambiguities in legal writing), and debate.

20 October 2017

The 3rd edition of Clarity for Lawyers is now available. You are invited to read about the book, and to look inside, on its dedicated website at, from which you can also buy it.